Contraceptive Use

Many studies have been conducted on contraceptive use among adolescents. This section includes information on the influence of partner type, age, parental approval, and alcohol and drug use on the use of contraception during sexual intercourse.

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

Description: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regularly publishes the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) that measures sexual behaviors, alcohol and other drug use, tobacco use, unhealthy dietary behaviors, physical inactivity, and behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence. The YRBS is conducted every two years with students in grades nine through 12 at high schools across the country. It provides the most current information about adolescent sexual behavior, including history of sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and contraceptive use. The YRBS asks sexually active high school students if they had used condoms or birth control pills at last intercourse.

Key Statistics:

  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey), 63% (56% of females and 70% of males) reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse.
  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey), 75% of 9th graders, 65% of 10th grade students, 62 % if eleventh grade students, and 55% of twelfth grade students reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse.
  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey), 69% of Black students, 58% of Hispanic students, and 63% of White students reported having used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse.
  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 18% (21% of females and 15% of males) reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse.
  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey), 8% of 9th graders, 14% of 10th grade students, 19% of eleventh grade students, and 26% of twelfth grade students reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse.
  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active, 23% (19% of females and 28% of males) reported having used alcohol or drugs the last time they had sexual intercourse.
  • In 2005, among those high school students who reported being currently sexually active (defined as having had sexual intercourse in the three months prior to the survey), 10% of Black students, 10% of Hispanic students, and 22% of White students reported having used birth control pills the last time they had sexual intercourse.

To View this Resource: See Healthy Youth online which allows visitors to view data from 1991–2005 by topic, to compare data across years, and to see data specific to states and communities at:

apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/CategoryQuestions.asp?cat=4&desc=Sexual%20Behaviors

or See the relevant tables directly from the YRBS at

www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm#tab46


Maternal Correlates of Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior

Source: James Jaccard, et al, “Maternal Correlates of Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior,” Family Planning Perspectives, 28.4 (July/August 1996).

Description:This report contains the findings of a study to determine the impact of maternal discussions about birth control and sexual activity on the sexual behavior of adolescents.

Key Statistics:

  • In a survey of 751 black youths, adolescent perceptions of maternal disapproval of premarital sex and satisfaction with the mother-child relationship were significantly related to abstinence from adolescent sexual activity as well as to less-frequent sexual intercourse and more consistent use of contraceptives among sexually active youths.
  • Teenagers who reported a low level of satisfaction with their mother were more than twice as likely as those highly satisfied with their relationship to be having sexual intercourse.
  • Discussions about birth control were associated with an increased likelihood that adolescents were sexually active. Such discussions were not significantly related to consistent contraceptive use for female adolescents, but were associated with increased contraceptive use for male teenagers.

To View this Resource:www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/2815996.html


Adolescent Drinking and Sex: Findings from a Daily Diary Study

Source: Diane Morrison, et al, “Adolescent Drinking and Sex: Findings from a Daily Diary Study,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35.4 (July/August 2003)

Description: This report contains the findings of a study to determine the relationship between condom use and alcohol use during intercourse.

Key Statistics:

  • Rates of condom use did not differ significantly between sexual events preceded by drinking and those not preceded by drinking.
  • In the multivariate analyses, the odds of condom use were not associated either with whether a teenager had been drinking before sex or with the quantity of alcohol consumed.

To View this Resource:www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3516203.html


Among Sexually Experienced Male Adolescents, Those with Partners of Both Sexes Exhibit Riskiest Behavior

Source: T. Lane, “Among Sexually Experienced Male Adolescents, Those with Partners of Both Sexes Exhibit Riskiest Behavior,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34.3 (May/June 2002).

Description: This article reports the findings of a study to determine whether sexual orientation affects adolescent sexual behavior and the related risk factors. The study compared sexual behavior of adolescent males with only heterosexual sexual contact to adolescent males with partners of both sexes.

Key Statistics:

  • Among young men progressing to sexual intercourse, those with partners of both sexes have reduced odds of using a condom and elevated odds of having had multiple lifetime partners.
  • In contrast, men who have exclusively homosexual relationships are no more likely than heterosexually active men to report these AIDS-related risk factors.

To View this Resource:www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3416602.html


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